A Mission Statement
1. St George’s Church exists to celebrate and proclaim the love of God for all people as revealed in Jesus Christ and the presence of the Holy Spirit in our daily lives.
2. St George’s Church obeys this vocation by living out its Anglican or ‘Episcopal’ tradition in an open, attractive and hospitable fashion.
3. To that tradition belong our liturgy and worship, which follow primarily the authorized forms of the Church of England, the regular celebration of the Sacraments, reading of Holy Scripture and instruction, respecting the individual conscience and the freedom of the reasoning mind.
4. As a local expression of the catholic Church our vocation is to make known the Gospel of Jesus Christ:
a) to all who will hear it, irrespective of nationality, although recognizing the particular needs and claims upon us of the international Anglican community and of all who seek a spiritual home in a congregation which worships mainly in English; thereby we bear witness to the inclusiveness and universality of God’s love.
b) by celebrating the presence and working of the Holy Spirit in our lives, and welcoming all those who seek God.
c) by the ministry of hospitality, using our buildings as a resource to serve the community whether through sponsoring concerts, cultural events, service groups, and other types of outreach to the community.
d) by offering services of public worship and praise which in their beauty and dignity serve to identify and celebrate God’s presence in the world.
e) through Christian education programs (such as Children´s Church, teenage groups, and adult Christian education, Bible study groups, prayer groups) to learn of God’s presence in the Bible and the here and now of everyday life.
f) directly, in sermons, personal conversation, writings, in the media and in the united efforts of our community to share the Good News.
g) through ecumenical partnership with the German- and English-speaking Churches around us
By such means we seek to carry out the promise of our baptism and do the work of Jesus Christ in Berlin.
History of St George’s in Berlin
As the capital of Prussia, Berlin was a relatively small city of some 322,000 people in 1842. After the Unification of Germany in 1871, Berlin became the capital of the German Empire, its population growing to over 1.3 million inhabitants by 1880,and including a large international community.
The history of Berlin in the twentieth century is the history of Europe. After the terrors of war and Totalitarianism, Berlin has risen again from the rubble. Its population bulged to 4 million in 1922. After the division of the city in 1945, its reunification in October 1990, and restoration as the capital city of a reunited Germany, it has now settled at around the 3 million mark. It covers a huge area and is served by an excellent public transport system.
The old St George’s
There has been Anglican Worship in Berlin since at least 1830. Initially in the historic centre - Mitte - of the city and from 1855 in the gatehouse of Monbijou Palace on Oranienburgerstasse, which was destroyed during the Second World War. This 'English Chapel' was soon found to be too small for the new German Capital City, and so under the patronage of the English born Crown Princess Victoria, the first St George`s Anglican Church was built in 1885 in the grounds of the Monbijou Palace. It had royal patronage; Queen Victoria visited in 1888, King George V in 1913, and it was the only Anglican Church in Germany allowed to remain open during the First World War, because Kaiser Wilhelm II was its Patron.
In the hardship of the 1920’s and 1930’s, St George’s struggled to stay open, ministering to a large British-born artisan population (mainly women who had married and settled in Berlin) as well as American, German, Indian, Chinese, Finnish and Russian Christians. It was closed at the outbreak of the Second World War, and was hit by allied bombing in 1943 and 1944. The remains of the Church, being in East Berlin, were pulled down by the German Democratic Republic (GDR).
Infoboard on Monbijou Park displaying the history of former site of St George’s
The new St George’s
In 1950 a new St George’s Church was built in the British sector of West Berlin, near the Olympic Stadium in Neu-Westend. It was run as a Garrison Church for the British military, and still today the pews bear military badges from each British regiment that served in post war Berlin. In 1987 the original Church Silver, donated by Crown Princess Victoria, was discovered in a city cellar and since this time has been used in our weekly worship.
After the Allies withdrew from the reunited Berlin in 1994, St George’s once again became a civilian Church. In 2003, as an addition to our Sunday morning worship in Neu-Westend, we also returned to our roots in Berlin-Mitte, to offer a Sunday evening service in the centre of the old east Berlin.
The Anglican Church
St George’s is part of the Diocese in Europe of the Church of England. The worldwide Anglican Communion of Churches, embraces the Church of England and thirty-seven other Christian churches, with a total of seventy million members across more than one hundred different countries. Each of the churches is self-governing and has its own liturgy, but share in one Communion, symbolically led by the Archbishop of Canterbury. The word Anglican itself is derived from the latin word for English, anglicanus.
As a worldwide (= catholic) Church, Anglicans speak a wide variety of languages and come from many different races and cultures: perhaps the distinguishing feature of the Anglican Church is to be found in its very breadth, tolerance and inclusivity. All Anglican churches are however united by the common tenets of their faith. ‘To be an Anglican is to be on a journey of faith to God supported by a fellowship of co-believers who are deditated to finding Him by prayer and service.’
Basic tenets of Anglicanism
Anglicans view the Old and New Testaments of the Bible as containing all things necessary for salvation and as being the rule and ultimate standard of faith. Anglicans understand the Apostles’ Creed as the baptismal symbol and the Nicene Creed as the sufficient statement of the Christian faith. Anglicans administer the two sacraments ordained by Christ himself, Baptism and the Supper of the Lord (Holy Communion) with use of Christ’s words of institution, and the elements are blessed by Him. Anglicans adapt the administration of the historic Episcopate to suit local needs of differing nations and peoples.
In practice in the Church of England this means that our Christian lives are based upon what is revealed in the of Holy Scripture and the Creeds and that the offering of prayer and praise in worship, especially in the Sacrament of Holy Communion, is central to our communal life. Baptism in the name of the Father, Son and Holy Spirit is the receiving of a person in to the fellowship of the Church and makes him or her. one with Christ. We are committed to proclaiming the ‘Good News’, the Gospel of Christ our Redeemer and Saviour to everyone.
Catholic, apostolic - and Establishment
Anglicans trace their Christian roots back to the early Church, and their specifically Anglican identity to the post-Reformation establishment of the Church of England and other Episcopal or Anglican Churches. They uphold what is often termed a Catholic and Apostolic faith – meaning that at the Reformation, the Church consciously retained continuity with the Creeds, patterns of ministry and liturgy of the past, whilst also encompassing Protestant insights in its theology and overall liturgical practice. The Anglican Church has no Creeds of its own, only those Creeds that are shared by all Christian Churches.
The British Monarch is the Supreme Governor of the Church of England, although in practice, effective leadership falls to the Archbishop of Canterbury and General Synod. The Church of England is the established Church in England i.e., has a particular range of legal privileges and responsibilities, but does not levy or receive church tax or any direct support from the government. The Church’s legislative and governing body is the General Synod, which is divided into the three houses of Bishops, Clergy and Laity.
History of the Church of England
An Ancient Church
The roots of the Church of England go back to the time of the Roman Empire when a Christian church came into existence in what was then the Roman province of Britain. The early Christian writers Tertullian and Origen mention the existence of a British church in the third century AD and in the fourth century British bishops attended a number of the great councils of the Church such as the Council of Arles in 314 and the Council of Rimini in 359. The first member of the British church whom we know by name is St Alban, who, tradition tells us, was martyred for his faith on the spot where St Albans Abbey now stands.
The British church was a missionary church with figures such as St Illtud, St Ninian and St Patrick evangelising in Wales, Scotland and Ireland, but the invasions by the pagan Angles, Saxons and Jutes in the fifth century seem to have destroyed the organisation of the church in much of what is now England. In 597 a mission sent by Pope Gregory the Great and led by St Augustine of Canterbury landed in Kent to begin the work of converting these pagan peoples. What eventually became known as the Church of England (the Ecclesia Anglicana - or the English Church) was the result of a combination of three streams of Christianity, the Roman tradition of St Augustine and his successors, the remnants of the old Romano-British church and the Celtic tradition coming down from Scotland and associated with people like St Aidan and St Cuthbert.
An English Church
These three streams came together as a result of increasing mutual contact and a number of local synods, of which the Synod of Whitby in 664 has traditionally been seen as the most important. The result was an English Church, led by the two Archbishops of Canterbury and York that was fully assimilated into the mainstream of the Christian Church of the west. This meant that it was influenced by the wider development of the Western Christian tradition in matters such as theology, liturgy, church architecture, and the development of monasticism. It also meant that until the Reformation in the 16th century the Church of England acknowledged the authority of the Pope.
A Reformed Church
At the Reformation the Western Church became divided between those who continued to accept Papal authority and the various Protestant churches that repudiated it. The Church of England was among the churches that broke with Rome. The catalyst for this decision was the refusal of the Pope to annul the marriage of Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon, but underlying this was a Tudor nationalist belief that authority over the English Church properly belonged to the English monarchy. In the reign of Henry’s son Edward VI the Church of England underwent further reformation, driven by the conviction that the theology being developed by the theologians of the Protestant Reformation was more faithful to the teaching of the Bible and the Early Church than the teaching of those who continued to support the Pope.
In the reign of Mary Tudor, the Church of England once again submitted to Papal authority. However, this policy was reversed when Elizabeth I came to the throne in 1558. The religious settlement that eventually emerged in the reign of Elizabeth gave the Church of England the distinctive identity that it has retained to this day. It resulted in a Church that consciously retained a large amount of continuity with the Church of the Patristic and Medieval periods in terms of its use of the catholic creeds, its pattern of ministry, its buildings and aspects of its liturgy, but which also embodied Protestant insights in its theology and in the overall shape of its liturgical practice. The way that this is often expressed is by saying that the Church of England is both 'catholic and reformed.' At the end of the 16th century Richard Hooker produced the classic defence of the Elizabethan settlement in his Of the Laws of Ecclesiastical Polity, a work which sought to defend the Church of England against its Puritan critics who wanted further changes to make the Church of England more like the churches of Geneva or Scotland.
An Established Church
In the 17th century continuing tensions within the Church of England over theological and liturgical issues were among the factors that led to the English Civil War. The Church was associated with the losing Royalist side and during the period of the Commonwealth from 1649-1660 its bishops were abolished and its prayer book, the Book of Common Prayer, was banned. With the restoration of the monarchy in 1660 this situation was reversed and in 1662 those clergy who could not accept this decision were forced to leave their posts. These dissenting clergy and their congregations were then persecuted until 1689 when the Toleration Act gave legal existence to those Protestant groups outside the Church of England who accepted the doctrine of the Trinity.
The settlement of 1689 has remained the basis of the constitutional position of the Church of England ever since, a constitutional position in which the Church of England has remained the established Church with a range of particular legal privileges and responsibilities, but with ever increasing religious and civil rights being granted to other Christians, those of other faiths and those professing no faith at all. As well as being the established Church in England, the Church of England has also become the mother church of the Anglican Communion, a group of separate churches that are in communion with the Archbishop of Canterbury and for whom he is the focus of unity.
A Comprehensive Church
The history of the Church of England from the 18th century onwards has been enriched by the co-existence within it of three broad traditions, the Evangelical, the Catholic and the Liberal. The Evangelical tradition has emphasized the significance of the Protestant aspects of the Church of England’s identity, stressing the importance of the authority of Scripture, preaching, justification by faith and personal conversion. The Catholic tradition, strengthened and reshaped from the 1830s by the Oxford movement, has emphasized the significance of the continuity between the Church of England and the Church of the Early and Medieval periods. It has stressed the importance of the visible Church and its sacraments and the belief that the ministry of bishops, priests and deacons is a sign and instrument of the Church of England’s Catholic and apostolic identity. The Liberal tradition has emphasized the importance of the use of reason in theological exploration. It has stressed the need to develop Christian belief and practice in order to respond creatively to wider advances in human knowledge and understanding and the importance of social and political action in forwarding God’s kingdom.
It should be noted that these three traditions have not existed in strict isolation. Both in the case of individuals and in the case of the Church as a whole, influences from all three traditions have overlapped in a whole variety of different ways. It also needs to be noted that since the 1960’s a fourth influence, the Charismatic movement, has become increasingly important. This has emphasized the importance of the Church being open to renewal through the work of the Holy Spirit. Its roots lie in Evangelicalism but it has influenced people from a variety of different traditions.
A Church Committed to Mission and Unity
From the 18th century onwards the Church of England has also been faced with a number of challenges that it continues to face today. There has been the challenge of responding to social changes in England such as population growth, urbanisation and the development of an increasingly multi-cultural and multi-faith society. There has been the challenge of engaging in mission in a society that has become increasingly materialist in outlook and in which belief in God or interest in ‘spiritual’ matters is not seen as being linked to involvement with the life of the Church. There has been the challenge of providing sufficient and sufficiently trained clergy and lay ministers to enable the Church of England to carry out its responsibility to provide ministry and pastoral care for every parish in the country. There has been the challenge of trying to overcome the divisions of the past by developing closer relationships between the Church of England and other churches and trying to move with them towards the goal of full visible unity.
As this brief account has shown, the changes that have taken place in the Church of England over the centuries have been many and various. What has remained constant, however, has been the Church’s commitment to the faith ‘uniquely revealed in the Holy Scriptures and set forth in the catholic creeds,’ its maintenance of the traditional three fold order of ministry, and its determination to bring the grace of God to the whole nation through word and sacrament in the power of the Holy Spirit.
I Bunting (ed.), Celebrating the Anglican Way
S C Neill, Anglicanism
S Platten (ed.), Anglicanism and the Western Christian Tradition
© The Archbishops' Council of the Church of England, 2004
A is for Anglican
Who on earth are we? Catholics in disguise? Protestants who like pomp and ceremony? The Establishment in England? The Tory party at prayer? or are we too greeny and New Labour for that?
We are an international fellowship of self-governing churches scattered over 164 countries, and there are about 70 million of us, most of whom are black. At St. George's Anglican Church you will meet people from these other churches of our 'Anglican Communion'. There are English folk from the Church of England, the occasional Nigerial Anglican, and Scottish and American Episcopalians. That mouthful of a word just means 'with bishops' or 'episkopoi', as opposed to Presbyterian for example, which means having 'presbuteroi' or elders, another form of church government.
Nowadays Christians of most denominations or branches of the church tend to worship wherever they feel welcome, are encouraged and taught the faith and like the hymns. Probably that's fair enough; it is more important to encounter Jesus Christ within a living spiritual community than to be bound by denominational loyalties. But here are some things to cherish about being an Anglican:
- You do not need to leave your brain at the church door. Our Communion sets great store by three principles: scripture, tradition and reason. That means that the Bible can only be properly understood when we bring understanding, research, and scholarship to its pages. Read with an open questioning mind, it yields its treasures. Likewise tradition needs reason. A custom is not necessarily good just because it is old! However hallowed and venerable our traditions (like only ordaining men or denying divorces people remarriage in church, for example), they are not set in stone. The freedom of generations of enquiring hearts and minds and the development of knowledge cannot be thwarted. Thus we are saved from a 'Bible says' fundamentalism and from a slavish adherence to 'the way it has always been done.' Fanaticism is somehow terribly un-Anglican... but moral and intellectual courage are not. At our best (Desmond Tutu, for example), we can still get up and declare forthrightly, 'Thus says the Lord!'
- You don't need to be all brains, either. Our worship is quite a rich experience of colours and sounds and tastes... and sometimes even smells. Our bodies are involved, standing, sitting, kneeling, walking to the front, greeting others, singing and reciting. Symbols are everywhere in church, symbols to look at, symbols to touch, symbol to DO. And liturgy is like a kind of formal dance. There are patterns in our communion service, a clear structure, and it is reassuringly much the same from week to week like a familiar dance. The year itself has a pattern, too, waiting on the birth of the Redeemer, His coming at Christmas, His baptism and temptation, His suffering, dying and rising, and then His Ascension and the coming of the Holy Spirit. Year by year from Advent to Pentecost we pattern our worship on the events in the life of Jesus, who gives shape and identity and meaning to our lives. Even a child or a simple person can enter the drama and understand with the heart.
- You can be as weird as you like. Of all churches, the Anglican church is among the gentlest and most tolerant. Indeed it prides itself on not having hard edges, closing issues or excluding people. Its members are accorded great freedom to explore belief and the limits to which the tradition can be pushed, and some of them do. There is a characteristic humility in this, which is often mistaken for weakness. Anglicanism is loath to pin down its doctrines, define its God or intrude into the personal consciences and practices of its people. God is far too great to talk about except provisionally, people are more or less inconsistent and inevitably sinful, and many moral issues are too complex for weeping judgements. 'Just come along to church', says the typical Anglican when asked to explain exactly what he or she believes, 'and you'll see from our worship what we're like'.
- You can be as ordinary as you like. I joined an Anglican church in my twenties because in the one I visited, a horrible old Victorian barn with a wheezy organ, I found ordinary people who did not bang on about sin and the Bible and being saved, but knelt and prayed sincerely and in wonderful words. They drank beer after Evensong. In puritan Scotland that was enough for me and I never looked back. I was not the first and will certainly not be the last to discover in this unemphatic, spacious tradition a God of loving kindness and a healer of wounds.
What is anglicanism?
Anglicans & Episcopalians
Anglicanism is the catholic faith as expressed through the Church of England. An Anglican is a member of the Anglican Church, or more properly the Anglican Communion. The word “Anglican” derives from the word “Anglo” as in "Anglo-Saxon" and means "English." The Anglican Church originally was the Church of England and indeed the Anglican Church began in England. Today, many centuries later, The Anglican Communion is made up of 38 Provinces that include 77 million members in 164 countries. It is the third largest Christian church, right after Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox. "Anglicanism" is the beliefs and practices of the Anglican Communion.
Although considered Protestant by many, the Anglican Communion identifies itself with the catholic faiths. In fact, many refer to the Anglican faith as being reformed Catholicism, while others call it Biblican Catholicism. But, whatever the definition, Anglicanism is a hybrid between the Catholic and Protestant faiths.
In the summer of 2006 the Archbishop of Canterbury Rowan Williams identified three things that, when held together, make Anglicanism distinct from other Christian denominations and contribute to the essential character of our church. Other denominations share one or two of these qualities. What makes Anglicanism unique is the balanced presence of all three. They are:
- A reformed commitment to the priority of the Bible for deciding doctrine.
- A catholic loyalty to the sacraments and the threefold ministry of bishops, priests and deacons.
- A habit of cultural sensitivity and intellectual flexibility that does not seek to close down unexpected questions too quickly.
In conjunction with this definition is the principle set down by one of the church's theologians, explaining that Anglicanism is a "three-legged stool." One leg is Scripture; the second is Tradition; the third is Reason. Scripture has priority, trumping the other two when stating dogma. But, the Traditions of the unified Church, when Scripture is silent, is also very important. Finally, Reason must be applied to discern what is meant by Scripture and Tradition and to apply these two to new or different situations. Clearly Archbishop Williams's explanation and the image of the three-legged stool links our reformed heritage, our catholic heritage, and our intellectual heritage nicely, capturing the core strength of the Anglican way of living out our Christian Faith.
1. A reformed commitment to the priority of the Bible
The word “Doctrine” means a belief or set of beliefs that is taught. For Example, the Doctrine of the Trinity is taught by all Christians. In Anglicanism all Doctrine is based on the Holy Bible. We approach the Bible as the word of God given to us for our instruction and formation. In addition to Scripture, we also take very seriously the customs and beliefs of those who have gone before us. Of particular importance are the teachings of the very first Christians. We call these beliefs passed down through the generations, "Traditions."
But there are times when we need our best intellectual abilities, or "Reason," to lead us to deeper and richer understandings of God’s Holy Word and also God’s Will. This results in the reworking of our doctrine, as it did in the abolition of the English Slave Trade and in allowing the remarriage of divorced persons.
We are cautious about changing doctrine that has been taught for hundreds of years. We will do so and have, but only when we are convinced that a deeper understanding of God’s unchanging Word requires such a change. But, upholding the authority of Scripture in determining doctrine provides us with a solid foundation.
2. A catholic loyalty to the sacraments and the threefold ministry of bishops, priests and deacons
The second distinctive of Anglicanism has two parts: a catholic loyalty to the Sacraments and the threefold order of ministry. To understand the sacraments, we need to understand "Grace."
Grace is the “unmerited divine assistance given humans for their regeneration or sanctification.” Grace is the power to change lives. God gives it to us. We cannot earn it, and we do not deserve it. God gives it to us so that we can become holy people.
We receive Grace when we encounter God. A sacrament is an outward and visible sign of an inward invisible grace. Sacraments are means of receiving grace. Sacraments are encounters with God. While all things are potentially sacramental, we Anglicans talk about two major sacraments and five minor sacraments. The two major sacraments are Holy Baptism and Holy Communion. These are sacraments that Christ, Himself, instituted. The five minor are called minor only because not everyone experiences them. These include Ordination, Marriage, Confession, Last Rites, and Confirmation.
Baptism is a sacrament for the beginning of our faith journey and Holy Communion is a Sacrament for the journey. What we feel isn’t as important as knowing that the Grace of our Lord Jesus Christ is working in us as we participate.
Very early in the church’s history it ordered itself into four ministries. They are Bishops, Priests, Deacons, and Laypeople. Originally, the church only had Bishops and Deacons, but when Christianity became the state religion of the Roman Empire, Bishops could no longer "feed" the entire "flock." They thus founded the priestly order as a subset of the role of the Bishop. This traditional division of roles has proven helpful over the centuries. Other churches have other patterns of ministry and other titles, but Anglicans continue, along with the Orthodox Church and Roman Catholic Church, with this traditional pattern. This chain of bishops ordaining bishops, priests, and deacons ties us to the very early church and is a living reminder of our tradition. We call this chain of ordination the “Apostolic Succession” and believe that the chain began with the first apostles.
3. A habit of cultural sensitivity and intellectual flexibility that does not seek to close down unexpected questions too quickly
Anglicanism has long held the belief that "in essentials, uniformity; in non-essentials, liberty; and in all things, charity (love)." This belief has been expressed in two main ways. The first is an openness to local responses to local challenges. The church in Asia worships God a little differently than the Church in Africa or the Church in North America. Anglicanism places a high value on finding local solutions to local challenges and opportunities. Anglicanism has also always found much good to celebrate in society even as it calls culture to a wholeness of life in Jesus Christ. The first two marks of Anglicanism that I described – a commitment to the absolute priority of the Bible for deciding doctrine and a catholic loyalty to the sacraments and the three fold order of ministry- safeguard Anglicanism from becoming too reflective of local culture.
Intellectual flexibility is a companion to cultural sensitivity, and results in a church that is open to unexpected questions that can result in a change in doctrine. Anglicanism has never been afraid of critical examination of its core teachings, and indeed welcomes unexpected questions as an opportunity to critically reflect upon and reexamine our faith and doctrine.
There remains the question of Balance. Each of the three marks of Anglicanism are shared with many other churches, but held together they give Anglicanism its unique flavor. Holding the three in a balance is how the character of Anglicanism is maintained. When one mark is emphasized at the cost of others, the church becomes less Anglican and more like another denomination that stresses that particular mark.
When these three elements are in balance we have Anglicanism. Problems within Anglicanism occur when these three are out of balance.
The Anglican Way of being a Christian has much to commend it. It encourages thoughtful reflection while remaining faithful to God’s word. It maintains a strong link to historic Christianity that helps keep us humble about our contemporary views and opinions. And it encourages local innovation in response to local needs and opportunities. It is a grace filled way of living out a Christian faith. But the best way to understand this faith is to experience it. And that is why we welcome all to our church, to grow, to understand, and ultimately to feel the love of God.